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    1. This Standard on Auditing(SA) deals with auditor’s responsibility to plan an audit of financial statements
    2. It is framed in the context of recurring audits
    3. Additional considerations in initial audit engagements are separately identified 

    Objective: The objective of the auditor is to plan the audit so that it will be performed in an effective manner. 

    Effective Date: This SA is effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after 1st April 2008. 


    1. What is meant by Vouching
    • Vouching is a process of checking the vouchers related to the transactions recorded in the books of accounts.
    • Vouching is the essence of the Auditing. The object of vouching is to Gain assurance regarding the existence assertion. 
    • Vouching tracks a result backward to the originating event, ensuring that a recorded amount is properly supported. 


    Provident Fund: 

    The Act that governs Provident fund in India is the Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952. Provident fund is a scheme where by employer and / or employee will contribute to an investment fund. The amount invested in the fund can be withdrawn after a specified time or after attaining specific age. 


    Section 269SS - Mode of taking or accepting certain loans, deposits and specified sum: 


    This section applies to all the persons i.e. individual, HUF, Company, Partnership firm, AOP/BOI, Local authority, Co-operative society, Trust, AJP. 


    No person shall take or accept from any other person, any loan or deposit or any specified sum1 , otherwise than by an account payee cheque or account payee bank draft or use of electronic clearing system through a bank account, if 

    • the amount of such loan or deposit2 or specified sum or the aggregate of the loan or deposit or specified sum is twenty thousand rupees or more or
    • On the date of taking or accepting such loan or deposit or specified sum, any loan or deposit or specified sum accepted earlier by such person from the depositor is remaining unpaid (whether repayment has fallen due or not) is Rs.20,000/- or more or
    • The aggregate amount of loan or deposit or sum specified along with the amount loan or deposit or sum specified taken earlier which is outstanding on the date on which loan or deposit is to be taken is Rs. 20,000/- or more.



    In order to provide an opportunity to all persons, a new scheme, i.e., Income Declaration Scheme, 2016 (“Scheme”) has been introduced by the Finance Ministry which allows all persons who have not paid full taxes in the past to come forward and declare the undisclosed income and pay tax, surcharge and penalty. The amount of such tax, surcharge and penalty works out to 45 percent of such undisclosed income declared. 

    Chapter IX has been introduced in the Income-tax Act, 961 (“Act”) for the Scheme and is named as ‘The Income Declaration Scheme, 2016’ consisting of sections 181 to section 199. The scheme has been introduced with effect from June 1st2016 and will remain open up to the date to be notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette which is September 30, 2016 (notified by the Central Government). 

    The scheme is applicable in respect of undisclosed income for any Financial Year (“FY”) prior to FY 2016-17 (i.e., AY 2017-18). The Income Declaration Rules, 2016 has also been notified by the Central Board of Direct Taxes (“CBDT”) (on May 19, 2016) and has issued various explanatory notes and clarifications in the form of ‘Frequently asked questions’ (“FAQ”) for better compliance with the Scheme.